To close the gaps in HIV testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa, large-scale investments are needed in the health systems of West and Central Africa.
As a result of the introduction of antiretroviral drugs a Extraordinary decay HIV infection from mother to child. New infections in children have decreased 52% worldwide and 55% in sub-Saharan Africa Between 2010 and 2019.
So it is universal Screening It is most important for all pregnant women to be infected with HIV. If all pregnant women are examined and treated, the risk of mother-to-child transmission can be reduced. Less than 5%.
Less than five thousand children will be infected worldwide. However, despite the widespread availability of tests and treatments 150,000 children In 2011, the rate of newly infected HIV infections worldwide was about 15%.
Sub-Saharan Africa accounts Eight out of ten New infections in children. Research This means that the number of new infections among children in the region has dropped from 2,263,000 in 2010 to 12,000 in 2012, but progress is being made. Unequal.
Most countries in the south And East Africa Countries have designed their prevention programs and achieved results West and Central Africa In some developing countries, even HIV-infected mothers have been reported to have an increased risk of delivery.
Tests in pregnant women have a mirror interval of unequal transmission. For example, South Africa has reduced child transmission from maternity Less than 4% The test was performed on pregnant women by the year 2011 and antiretroviral therapy was provided. However, in most West and Central African countries, prenatal testing rates are low and average. Infection rate 20%.
Given this background, we tested the coverage of HIV testing among pregnant women in sub-Saharan African countries. The study focused on women of reproductive age.
Our results Ensure huge differences between countries. Only 6.1% of pregnant women tested in Chad, compared to 98.1% in Rwanda. In West and Central African countries, local and national governments should prioritize investment in getting all pregnant women tested for HIV.
Local, national and international agencies should reject efforts to promote regular HIV testing as part of all health services.
Adequate investment in political will and HIV prevention programs can reduce HIV transmission from mother to child.
Data from 16 countries
We analyze Demographic and health survey Data on 4,933 women from 1 sub-Saharan country in Africa. From Central Africa, we have included Angola, Cameroon and Chad. Benin, Guinea, Mali and Senegal represented West Africa. East Africa included Burundi, Ethiopia, Rwanda and Uganda. Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe represented South Africa.
Demographic and health surveys are conducted every five years by the countries’ health ministries or bureaus. It collects data on HIV indicators and health indicators such as maternal and child health, nutrition and sexual health. The study participants are representatives of their countries
Our study focused on whether mothers were tested for HIV as part of maternity care. We have also included specific characteristics in our statistical analysis as knowledge of age, marital status, education, wealth and HIV infection.
Our results show considerable differences between HIV testing countries in prenatal care and sub-Saharan Africa. Nine out of 10 people were tested as part of postpartum care in Rwanda, South Africa, Zambia, Uganda, Burundi and Zimbabwe, while only two out of 10 people were tested in Guinea, Benin and Mali. Chad has the lowest coverage, of which 10 are tested.
In all countries except Malawi and South Africa, women with secondary or higher education were more likely to be tested than women without formal education. The resource has created more possibilities for HIV testing than Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia, South Africa, Uganda, Rwanda and Chad.
Living in cities other than Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Uganda and Rwanda had the same effect. Surprisingly, women living in urban areas of South Africa were less likely to be tested for HIV during pregnancy. To date, health insurance ownership has been tested in half of the countries – not Benin, Burundi, Uganda, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi and Mozambique.
Behind the results
As a result, the countries of the sub-region Huge investment They also provide free testing and treatment services in the HIV prevention program. They do Community-based testing including workplace and home testing and self-testing
Second, there is a focus on the efforts and endeavors of global partners where the burden is greatest. The participation of national governments and global development partners has expanded and reduced the prevalence of HIV testing for pregnant women. Mother-to-child transmission Of HIV
Third, countries in the sub-region have invested heavily in their health care systems to give women access to prenatal care services. Presence of postpartum care It is serious for pregnant women to take HIV
About 95% of mothers Before the supply of skilled suppliers to East and South African countries except Ethiopia (34%) and Mozambique (60%). In many countries in the West and Central Africa region, a large proportion of women still cannot take care before delivery and therefore cannot be tested for HIV. Even when women are given antenatal care, many are not tested for HIV. In Nigeria, for example 75% and 54% HIV testing was performed in women receiving antenatal care in urban and rural health services, respectively.
As a result of low HIV supply and screening, only 58% of pregnant HIV-infected women in West and Central Africa are taking antiretroviral drugs, compared to 95% in East and South Africa. As a result, the rate of HIV infection in children 8% of East and South Africa Compared to 20% in West and Central Africa.
Large investments are needed in the health systems of West and Central Africa to close the gaps in HIV testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ujjwal Opoko Ahinkora, Abdul-Aziz Sedu, Oluafimi Apopega and Amarachi Kalu were the co-authors of this article.
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